Several famous seizure classification from 1815 to 2021 are listed. It should be noted that some term has different meanings in different classifications.

1. In 1815, Esquirol classified seizures into grand mal and petit mal according to clinical severity [1].

2. In 1937, Gibbs and Lennox et al. classified seizures into grand mal, petit mal and psychomotor attacks according to clinical and EEG changes [2].

3. In 1954, Gastaut combined clinical and EEG changes to classify seizures (the original work was not found, described according to the "Epilepsy, Relationship between Clinical and EEG" published in 1964 (translated by Delong Xu ).

4. In 1964, Gastaut et al. proposed the first draft of ILAE seizure classification according to clinical and EEG changes [3].

5. In 1970, Gastaut et al. revised the ILAE seizure classification proposed in 1964 [4].

6. In 1981, Gastaut et al. revised the ILAE seizure classification proposed in 1970 again [5].

7. In 1993, Lüders et al classified seizures purely from the perspective of semiological [6].

8. In 1998, Lüders et al. revised the classification of seizures proposed in 1993 [7].

9. In 2001, Engel et al. revised the ILAE seizure classification proposed in 1981 again [8].

10. In 2006, Engel et al. revised the ILAE seizure classification proposed in 2001 again [9].

11. In 2010, Berg et al. revised the ILAE seizure classification proposed in 2006 again [10].

12. In 2017, Scheffer et al. published a new ILAE seizure classification [11].

13. In 2019, Lüders et al. revised their 1998 seizure classification again [12].

14. In 2021, Ronit M. Pressler et al. proposed an ILAE classification for neonatal seizures [13].



1、Sidiropoulou, K., A. Diamantis, and E. Magiorkinis, Hallmarks in 18th- and 19th-century epilepsy research.Epilepsy Behav, 2010. 18(3): p. 151-61.

2、Gibbs, F.A., E.L. Gibbs, and W.G. Lennox, Epilepsy a paroxysmal cerebral dysrhythmia.Brain, 1937. 60: p. 377-388.

3、Arnautova, E.N. and T.N. Nesmeianova, A Proposed International Classification of Epileptic Seizures.Epilepsia, 1964. 5: p. 297-306.

4、Gastaut, H., Clinical and electroencephalographical classification of epileptic seizures.Epilepsia, 1970. 11(1): p. 102-13.

5、Proposal for revised clinical and electroencephalographic classification of epileptic seizures. From the Commission on Classification and Terminology of the International League Against Epilepsy.Epilepsia, 1981. 22(4): p. 489-501.

6、Luders, H.O., R. Burgess, and S. Noachtar, Expanding the international classification of seizures to provide localization information.Neurology, 1993. 43(9): p. 1650-5.

7、Luders, H., et al., Semiological seizure classification.Epilepsia, 1998. 39(9): p. 1006-13.

8、Engel, J., Jr. and E. International League Against, A proposed diagnostic scheme for people with epileptic seizures and with epilepsy: report of the ILAE Task Force on Classification and Terminology.Epilepsia, 2001. 42(6): p. 796-803.

9、Engel, J., Jr., Report of the ILAE classification core group.Epilepsia, 2006. 47(9): p. 1558-68.

10、Berg, A.T., et al., Revised terminology and concepts for organization of seizures and epilepsies: report of the ILAE Commission on Classification and Terminology, 2005-2009.Epilepsia, 2010. 51(4): p. 676-85.

11、Scheffer, I.E., et al., ILAE classification of the epilepsies: Position paper of the ILAE Commission for Classification and Terminology.Epilepsia, 2017. 58(4): p. 512-521.

12、Luders, H., et al., Classification of paroxysmal events and the four-dimensional epilepsy classification system.Epileptic Disord, 2019. 21(1): p. 1-29.

13、Pressler, R.M., et al., The ILAE classification of seizures and the epilepsies: Modification for seizures in the neonate. Position paper by the ILAE Task Force on Neonatal Seizures. Epilepsia, 2021.